Package 'ggip'

Title: Data Visualization for IP Addresses and Networks
Description: A 'ggplot2' extension that enables visualization of IP (Internet Protocol) addresses and networks. The address space is mapped onto the Cartesian coordinate system using a space-filling curve. Offers full support for both IPv4 and IPv6 (Internet Protocol versions 4 and 6) address spaces.
Authors: David Hall [aut, cre]
Maintainer: David Hall <david.hall.physics@gmail.com>
License: MIT + file LICENSE
Version: 0.3.2.9000
Built: 2024-02-11 06:27:20 UTC
Source: https://github.com/davidchall/ggip

Help Index


Coordinate system for IP data

Description

A ggplot2 coordinate system that maps a range of IP address space onto a two-dimensional grid using a space-filling curve.

coord_ip() forms the foundation of any ggip plot. It translates all ip_address and ip_network vectors to Cartesian coordinates, ready for use by ggplot2 layers (see Accessing Coordinates). This ensures all layers use a common mapping.

Usage

coord_ip(
  canvas_network = ip_network("0.0.0.0/0"),
  pixel_prefix = 16,
  curve = c("hilbert", "morton"),
  expand = FALSE
)

Arguments

canvas_network

An ip_network scalar that determines the region of IP space visualized by the entire 2D grid. The default shows the entire IPv4 address space.

pixel_prefix

An integer scalar that sets the prefix length of the network represented by a single pixel. The default value is 16. Increasing this effectively improves the resolution of the plot.

curve

A string to choose the space-filling curve. Choices are "hilbert" (default) and "morton".

expand

If TRUE, adds a small expanded margin around the data grid. The default is FALSE.

Accessing Coordinates

coord_ip() stores the result of the mapping in a nested data frame column. This means each ip_address or ip_network column in the original data set is converted to a data frame column. When specifying ggplot2 aesthetics, you'll need to use $ to access the nested data (see Examples).

Each ip_address column will be replaced with a data frame containing the following columns:

Column name Data type Description
ip ip_address Original IP data
x integer Pixel x
y integer Pixel y

Each ip_network column will be replaced with a data frame containing the following columns:

Column name Data type Description
ip ip_network Original IP data
xmin integer Bounding box xmin
ymin integer Bounding box ymin
xmax integer Bounding box xmax
ymax integer Bounding box ymax

See Also

vignette("visualizing-ip-data") describes the mapping in more detail.

Examples

suppressPackageStartupMessages(library(dplyr))

tibble(address = ip_address(c("0.0.0.0", "128.0.0.0", "192.168.0.1"))) %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = address$x, y = address$y, label = address$ip)) +
  geom_point() +
  geom_label(nudge_x = c(10, 0, -10), nudge_y = -10) +
  coord_ip(expand = TRUE) +
  theme_ip_light()

tibble(network = ip_network(c("0.0.0.0/8", "224.0.0.0/4"))) %>%
  mutate(
    start = network_address(network),
    end = broadcast_address(network)
  ) %>%
  ggplot() +
  geom_point(aes(x = start$x, y = start$y), color = "blue") +
  geom_point(aes(x = end$x, y = end$y), color = "red") +
  geom_rect(
    aes(xmin = network$xmin, xmax = network$xmax, ymin = network$ymin, ymax = network$ymax),
    alpha = 0.5, fill = "grey"
  ) +
  coord_ip(curve = "morton", expand = TRUE) +
  theme_ip_light()

Hilbert curve outline

Description

Computes and draws the outline of the Hilbert curve used to map IP data to the Cartesian plane. By superimposing this outline on top of a ggip plot, it guides the eye to regions that are close in IP address space.

Usage

geom_hilbert_outline(
  mapping = NULL,
  data = NULL,
  ...,
  na.rm = FALSE,
  show.legend = NA,
  inherit.aes = TRUE
)

Arguments

mapping

Set of aesthetic mappings created by aes(). If specified and inherit.aes = TRUE (the default), it is combined with the default mapping at the top level of the plot. You must supply mapping if there is no plot mapping.

data

The data to be displayed in this layer. There are three options:

If NULL, the default, the data is inherited from the plot data as specified in the call to ggplot().

A data.frame, or other object, will override the plot data. All objects will be fortified to produce a data frame. See fortify() for which variables will be created.

A function will be called with a single argument, the plot data. The return value must be a data.frame, and will be used as the layer data. A function can be created from a formula (e.g. ~ head(.x, 10)).

...

Other arguments passed on to layer(). These are often aesthetics, used to set an aesthetic to a fixed value, like colour = "red" or size = 3. They may also be parameters to the paired geom/stat.

na.rm

If FALSE, the default, missing values are removed with a warning. If TRUE, missing values are silently removed.

show.legend

logical. Should this layer be included in the legends? NA, the default, includes if any aesthetics are mapped. FALSE never includes, and TRUE always includes. It can also be a named logical vector to finely select the aesthetics to display.

inherit.aes

If FALSE, overrides the default aesthetics, rather than combining with them. This is most useful for helper functions that define both data and aesthetics and shouldn't inherit behaviour from the default plot specification, e.g. borders().

Aesthetics

geom_curve_outline() understands the following aesthetics:

Computed variables

x, y

The start coordinates for the segment

xend, yend

The end coordinates for the segment

Examples

p <- ggplot() + coord_ip() + theme_ip_light()

# default shows curve across entire canvas
p + geom_hilbert_outline()

# only show subnetwork
p + geom_hilbert_outline(ip = ip_network("128.0.0.0/2"))

# increased nesting
p + geom_hilbert_outline(curve_order = 4)

# show multiple networks
df <- data.frame(
  ip = ip_network(c("0.0.0.0/2", "128.0.0.0/4")),
  curve_order = c(4, 5),
  closed = c(FALSE, TRUE)
)
p + geom_hilbert_outline(
  aes(ip = ip, curve_order = curve_order, closed = closed),
  data = df
)

Map IP data to Cartesian coordinates

Description

These functions are used internally by coord_ip() to map ip_address and ip_network vectors to Cartesian coordinates. They are exposed externally to support use of these coordinates outside of ggplot2.

Usage

address_to_cartesian(
  address,
  canvas_network = ip_network("0.0.0.0/0"),
  pixel_prefix = 16,
  curve = c("hilbert", "morton")
)

network_to_cartesian(
  network,
  canvas_network = ip_network("0.0.0.0/0"),
  pixel_prefix = 16,
  curve = c("hilbert", "morton")
)

Arguments

address

An ip_address vector

canvas_network

An ip_network scalar that determines the region of IP space visualized by the entire 2D grid. The default shows the entire IPv4 address space.

pixel_prefix

An integer scalar that sets the prefix length of the network represented by a single pixel. The default value is 16. Increasing this effectively improves the resolution of the plot.

curve

A string to choose the space-filling curve. Choices are "hilbert" (default) and "morton".

network

An ip_network vector

Value

A data.frame containing columns:

Examples

address_to_cartesian(ip_address("192.168.0.1"))

network_to_cartesian(ip_network("224.0.0.0/4"))

Summarize IP addresses on a heatmap

Description

Addresses are grouped into networks determined by the pixel_prefix argument of coord_ip(). Then the z values are summarized with summary function fun.

Usage

stat_summary_address(
  mapping = NULL,
  data = NULL,
  ...,
  fun = NULL,
  fun.args = list(),
  na.rm = FALSE,
  show.legend = NA,
  inherit.aes = TRUE
)

Arguments

mapping

Set of aesthetic mappings created by aes(). If specified and inherit.aes = TRUE (the default), it is combined with the default mapping at the top level of the plot. You must supply mapping if there is no plot mapping.

data

The data to be displayed in this layer. There are three options:

If NULL, the default, the data is inherited from the plot data as specified in the call to ggplot().

A data.frame, or other object, will override the plot data. All objects will be fortified to produce a data frame. See fortify() for which variables will be created.

A function will be called with a single argument, the plot data. The return value must be a data.frame, and will be used as the layer data. A function can be created from a formula (e.g. ~ head(.x, 10)).

...

Other arguments passed on to layer(). These are often aesthetics, used to set an aesthetic to a fixed value, like colour = "red" or size = 3. They may also be parameters to the paired geom/stat.

fun

Summary function (see section below for details). If NULL (the default), the observations are simply counted.

fun.args

A list of extra arguments to pass to fun.

na.rm

If FALSE, the default, missing values are removed with a warning. If TRUE, missing values are silently removed.

show.legend

logical. Should this layer be included in the legends? NA, the default, includes if any aesthetics are mapped. FALSE never includes, and TRUE always includes. It can also be a named logical vector to finely select the aesthetics to display.

inherit.aes

If FALSE, overrides the default aesthetics, rather than combining with them. This is most useful for helper functions that define both data and aesthetics and shouldn't inherit behaviour from the default plot specification, e.g. borders().

Aesthetics

stat_summary_address() understands the following aesthetics (required aesthetics are in bold):

Computed variables

The following variables are available to after_stat():

Summary function

The data might contain multiple rows per pixel of the heatmap, so a summary function reduces this information to a single value to display. This function receives the data column specified by the z aesthetic and also receives arguments specified by fun.args.

The fun argument can be specified in multiple ways:

NULL

If no summary function is provided, the number of observations is computed. In this case, you don't need to specify the z aesthetic, and the computed variables value and count will be equal.

string

The name of an existing function (e.g. fun = "mean").

function

Either provide an existing function (e.g. fun = mean) or define a new function (e.g. fun = function(x) sum(x^2)).

formula

A function can also be created from a formula. This uses .x as the summarized variable (e.g. fun = ~ sum(.x^2)).

Examples

dat <- data.frame(
  ip = sample_ipv4(10000),
  weight = runif(10000)
)

p <- ggplot(dat, aes(ip = ip)) +
  coord_ip() +
  theme_ip_light()

# simple count of observations
p +
  stat_summary_address() +
  scale_fill_viridis_c(trans = "log2", na.value = "black", guide = "none")

# compute mean weight
p +
  stat_summary_address(aes(z = weight), fun = ~ mean(.x)) +
  scale_fill_viridis_c(na.value = "black", guide = "none")

Themes for IP data

Description

These set sensible defaults for plots generated by ggip. Use ggplot2::theme() if you want to tweak the results.

Usage

theme_ip_light(base_size = 11, base_family = "")

theme_ip_dark(
  background_color = "black",
  text_color = "white",
  base_size = 11,
  base_family = ""
)

Arguments

base_size

base font size, given in pts.

base_family

base font family

background_color

Background color

text_color

Text color

Examples

p <- ggplot(data.frame(ip = ip_address("128.0.0.0"))) +
  geom_point(aes(x = ip$x, y = ip$y), color = "grey") +
  coord_ip()

p + theme_ip_light()

p + theme_ip_dark()